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Estudios de capacidad de carga

Evaluación de la capacidad de carga. Una herramienta para el manejo y la conservación de los sitios patrimoniales

María Paula Álvarez, 
Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia, 2010

El concepto de capacidad de carga, desarrollado inicialmente en el campo de la ecología, es hoy en día una herramienta de gran utilidad para el manejo de visitantes y la evaluación de los impactos que causa la presencia humana sobre los sitios patrimoniales y áreas protegidas. El concepto supone varias dimensiones y perspectivas, lo que ha permitido construir modelos y metodologías abarcadoras y flexibles que permiten estudiar los sitios bajo un enfoque sistémico e integral que busca su sostenibilidad.

Las metodologías que se aplican al evaluar la capacidad de carga hacen posible, entre otras cosas, comprender los valores que definen los sitios patrimoniales y las áreas protegidas; detectar los conflictos, problemas y riesgos que les afectan; establecer los indicadores y estándares que permiten alcanzar condiciones óptimas; caracterizar y evaluar la visita; y definir las estrategias de manejo y monitoreo que aseguren la conservación de los sitios.

Attachments:
Download this file (EvaluacionCCT.pdf)Consulta el documento
 

La capacidad de carga turística. Aspectos conceptuales y normas de aplicación

Pablo Echamendi Llorente.
Universidad Complutense, 2001

Entre las pretensiones de este articulo se encuentra el iniciar una aproximación a un tema tan fundamental y actual como son los estudios de capacidad de carga en el campo del turismo y que no ha suscitado un gran interés hasta el momento entre los geógrafos españoles. No es nuestro objetivo el profundizar ahora en esta cuestión sino el de aportar algunas bases conceptuales y metodológicas que resulten útiles para posteriores estudios aplicados. Hemos intentado sintetizar en estas páginas la evolución histórica de este concepto desde su aparición, con los autores y trabajos más destacados de cada momento, las críticas más importantes que se han enunciado en su contra así como algunas experiencias de aplicación.

 

La capacidad de acogida física de las Ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad en España

Le - Dû Faustine, Master of Arts in European Tourism Management, Bournemouth University, 2005

Las once ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad de España tienen un patrimonio cultural tangible de excepcional atractivo para los turistas. Incluidos en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO, sus conjuntos urbanos enteros deben ser protegidos según la Convención de 1972 de esta organización. Sin embargo, durante las temporadas altas, ocurren problemas de saturación turística y de congestión del tráfico rodado en ciertos espacios de los cascos históricos que, a veces, acarrean la superación de sus límites de acogida. Además, la tendencia al auge de la demanda en turismo urbano y cultural permite pensar que en los próximos anos, los flujos de visitantes en estas ciudades van a aumentar.

Attachments:
Download this file (CCT_ciudades_patrimonio.pdf)Consulta el documento
 

Toledo: problemática e implicaciones urbanas del turismo

Troitiño, MA; Brandis,D.; Del Río, I.; De la Calle, M.; Gutiérrez, J; Lobo, P; Martín, F.
Departamento de Geografía Humana. Universidad Complutense Madrid, 1998

Se utiliza Toledo como experiencia piloto para desarrollar una metodología multicriterio orientada a explicar las interdependencias entre turismo y realidad urbana. Se presenta dicha metodología y los aspectos más relevantes en relación con los recursos culturales del centro histórico, los flujos de visitantes, infraestructuras de acogida... Se concluye con una interpretación general del modelo turístico de Toledo, definido como un destino maduro con débiles infraestructuras de gestión y precaria integración del turismo en la vida de la ciudad

Attachments:
Download this file (Toledo.pdf)Consulta el documento
 

Defining, measuring and evaluating carrying capacity in european tourism destinations

Harry Coccossis, Alexandra Mexa, Anna Collovini
European Commission, 2002

The study aims at the elaboration of a comprehensive methodological framework which will contribute to an understanding of the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC), its practical analysis and measurement and its efficient application in European tourist destinations. It is based on the analysis of key limiting factors for tourism development for different types of tourist destinations in the EEA countries (coastal areas, islands, protected areas, rural areas, mountain resorts, historical settlements) in respect to carrying capacity components (physical-ecological, socio-demographic, politicaleconomic).The analysis was based on the review of theory and of case studies, several of which are presented in this Report. Furthermore measures for implementing carrying capacity assessment for the different type of destinations are presented. In addition various other actions implemented in order to promote sustainable tourism in the EEA countries (members of EU, Norway and Iceland) but also in non EEA countries (selected case studies) are included.

 

How many are too many (tourist)? Tuscan Cities

Salvatore Bimone and Lionello Punzo

Observatory for Sustainable Toursim, University of Siena

The worldwide growth in tourism - wich has slowed down but will almost certainly pick up again, requires considerations on the delicate relationship between tourism (as a business and as visitor flow) and the environment in the broad sense of the term. Simplified and practically hidden behind the terminology associated with the concept of tourist destination this relationship takes on very special connotations, since teh tourist demand and the tourist product offer basically, though not exclusively, consist of environmental and cultural values such as the climate, nature, traditions, historic and  artistic resoureces.

 

A multidimensional tourism carrying capacity model: an empirical approach

Pasquale Pazienza
Univeristy of Foggia (Italy)

It is often observed that tourism generates a negative impact on the environment of destination places, among which the depletion of the natural capital is the most evident. To avoid this, tourism development and management should be based on the recognition of the limits characterising a destination. The indicator of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) can be particularly relevant to this purpose. In fact, it gives an idea of the threshold of tourists that can be accepted at a destination while considering the capacities of some components of the local tourism system. In this work, we approach a specific definition of TCC, and for its empirical measurement, we also develop a multidimensional model in the form of a mathematical programming application. Furthermore, we apply the model to some tourism destinations in the area of the Gargano National Park (South Italy), where evidence of unsustainable tourism management can be observed.

 

Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites, a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers

Arthur Pedersen, UNESCO, 2002

The manual addresses the needs identified by site managers and training centres. It provides a set of management methodologies and practices intended to help managers to solve tourism problems. It also establishes a common terminology with the aim of facilitating communication and information exchange among managers. Subjects include UNESCO, the World Heritage Convention and the World Heritage Centre, the tourism industry, working with the public, carrying capacity issues, tourism impacts, visitor management strategies, and interpretation and promotion; several of these subjects are illustrated by short case studies.

The manual also offers a set of tools applicable to designing surveys, monitoring policy and management implementation, promoting sites and communicating with stakeholders. Managers can select the procedures that are appropriate for different sites, and adapt them accordingly.

Attachments:
Download this file (ManagingTourismWorldHeritageSites.pdf)Consulta el documento
 

Monitoring World Heritage

UNESCO, 2002

Monitoring is all too often associated with extensive programmes to measure hundreds of variables over time with high tech equipment. Not surprisingly, many question the utility of such expensive programmes; others are not sure how monitoring can fit within the activities of the World Heritage Committee. The aim of this paper is threefold:

  1. To present the scope of the World Heritage Committee’s work, its trends, priorities and working methods to those in charge of monitoring programmes;
  2. To identify how monitoring can contribute to achieving the World Heritage Committee’s strategic objectives and facilitate its decision making;
  3. To formulate some suggestions to make the best use of monitoring World Heritage.

Attachments:
Download this file (MonitoringWorldHeritage.pdf)Consulta el documento
 

Guidelines for carrying capacity assessment for tourism in Mediterranean coastal areas

Priority actions proframme regional activity centre, 1997

These Guidelines are the response to the growing need for there to be a speeded -up ability for people to do carrying capacity assessment procedure in Mediterranean coastal environments, within the general planning and management of tourism. The immediate purpose of the Guidelines may be specified as follows:

The formulation of a comprehensive and consistent methodological and procedural document which will facilitate understanding the concept of carrying capacity, its analysis and assessment in various Mediterranean destinations, and particularly, its application, either within or outside of the integrated management process in coastal regions.

The Guidelines are addressed to decision makers, to professionals and to public institutions which deal with tourism planning specifically, and with physical planning in general. Since the document focusses, among others, upon Mediterranean tourism practice and offers an insight into entrepreneurial behaviour in tourism, it is also addressed to the private sector.

The Guidelines depart from the main characteristics of tourism development in the Mediterranean, and view it, in particular, from the aspect of the impacts which tourism has upon the environment. The document (a) explains the concept of carrying capacity assessment (CCA), as well as the reasons for it, and benefits arising from the CCA analytical studies; (b) offers instructions for the preparation of CCAs, which include the basic location, spatial, ecological, social, cultural and market criteria respected in the assessments, and in the selection of optimal
solutions; and (c) elaborates upon the integration of CCA in the plans for integrated management of coastal areas (ICAM).

 

Coastal Area Management Programme FUKA - MATROUH - Egypt. Carrying capacity assessment for tourism development

Priority Actions Programme, Regional Activity Centre, 1999

The "Tourism Carrying Capacity Assessment for the Fuka-Matrouh Coastal Zone" is one of the activities initiated through the "Coastal Areas Management Programme" (CAMP) for the state of Egypt as an input to the “Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Fuka-Matrouh Area”.

This work is being carried out by the Priority Actions Programme/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC), as a part of the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP).

The national counterpart institution ensuring contacts and co-operation with various other governmental agencies is the Institute for Graduate Studies and Research (UNARC) on the University of Alexandria.

The Tourism CCA for the Fuka-Matrouh Coastal Zone is at the same time a part of the PAP/RAC's priority action “Development of Mediterranean Tourism Harmonised with the Environment” and represents a practical application of the “Guidelines for Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism in Mediterranean Coastal Areas” prepared by
PAP/RAC.

This Guidelines intended to be a comprehensive methodological document, a procedure for the analysis and assessment of carrying capacity, as well as an input to the integrated planning and management of Mediterranean coastal areas.

 



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